The design process
It’s important to understand what the client wants, and consider that alongside other factors such as budget, character, and compliance.
The initial consultation provides an opportunity to understand what the client wants, and about what is possible. During this consultation, determine the client’s budget, gather information about the existing house – including its condition and what work is required. Then you can arrange a letter of appointment and a design brief. Initial consultation checklist.
As you develop the design brief, there will be many factors to consider.
For some owners, retaining existing character will be a priority. Others will want to incorporate modern features and layout into an original home. You can find out more about original features in the villa, bungalow, art deco, 1940s-60s and 1970s sections of this site.
What do the owners want to achieve in terms of living spaces, comfort, and other factors such as indoor/outdoor flow, sound control, access to a pool or garage, and so on? Do they want to extend the original home or to redevelop within the existing shell?
The existing building
What is possible depends to a significant extent on what’s already there. The existing building may require remedial work – for example, to replace rotten framing – or may require extension or strengthening to achieve what the owner wants. Similarly, new wiring or plumbing may be needed.
Also, original character may have been lost during past renovations.
See the Initial consultation checklist for more on what to look for in the existing building.
Opportunities for improvement
Renovation provides an opportunity to improve insulation, energy efficiency, and other aspects of building performance – and to carry out essential repairs or catch up on deferred maintenance. Even if the client doesn’t raise these issues, the opportunities should be discussed at an early stage.
Consider universal design: the concept that what you design should be accessible to people of all abilities, at any stage of life. This means the house will still work well for its occupants even as they become older or infirm. This can have a huge impact on the occupants’ health and security. For example, around 250 people (mostly elderly) die each year as a result of falls in their home. Good design can reduce trip/slip hazards and ensure safe lighting. The BRANZ website has a toolkit for universal design.
Designing for maintenance
Design and materials decisions can have a significant impact on the life expectancy of a building and its elements and components. Maintenance issues should be considered early, so the renovated building can be effectively and economically maintained. The considerations include:
- client attitudes to costs and maintenance
- material and finish costs
- material and finish performance
- environmental conditions, internal and external
- maintenance requirements and associated costs for each of the materials/components selected
- complexity of design and detailing
- the expected refurbishment cycles for the building
- building use and potential changes in use during its life
- potential changes in available technology.
Budget and feasibility
What is possible given the owner’s budget and the current state of the building? Owners can have unrealistic expectations so it is important to get a clear understanding about what can be achieved. Find out about this, and about estimates, quotes and contingency sums. Read More
Regulation and compliance
Any renovation work will have to comply with the Building Code and with relevant district plan requirements. The district plan might impose restrictions on building height and footprint, and might also require you to retain character and heritage features. See regulation and compliance for more.
Once the initial meetings and scoping have been held, it is the designer’s role to develop outline sketches that meet these requirements. Part of this process is:
- development of preliminary plans
- considering costs/benefits and initial estimates of cost for design options
- discussing of options and the consequences, implications and benefits of each
- finalising of the preferred design option, incorporating staging of the project as required.
While not always done, it is desirable that the builder be involved in the development of a renovation project. This means that a decision on the building contractor to be used should be made early in the project.
If the owner is not prepared to commit to a specific builder at the outset, commissioning an experienced renovation builder as an advisor during the development of the design solution is recommended – their time can be paid for on an hourly rate.
It is likely that the input from other professionals will be required during the design phase of the project and also during construction including:
- registered architect or architectural designer (LBP licensed)
- structural engineer
- quantity surveyor
- a project manager if the designer is not commissioned to supervise and manage the on-site construction – having the owner manage the project is not recommended unless they have specific building project management experience.
Be aware that certain types of work are defined as Restricted Building Work (RBW) and must be carried out or supervised by a licensed building practitioner (LBP). The aim of RBW is to ensure that buildings remain structurally sound and weathertight, and it applies to work including:
- foundations and structure
- external cladding (wall and roof)
- fire safety systems for houses.
Registered architects and chartered professional engineers are treated as LBPs in the design class. This means that they can design or supervise the design of RBW.
There is an exemption that allows homeowners to do RBW on their own homes, but they need to complete a statutory declaration, and the fact that they have done this work themselves will be noted on council records and be accessible by potential future buyers of the house.
If the house is listed or is of historical significance, a heritage or conservation architect should be involved. Under the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act, certain types of work on a building that was built before 1900 require an authority from Heritage New Zealand.