The earliest villas had no electricity. Instead, candles, paraffin lamps and gas were used for lighting, open fires for heating, and coal ranges for cooking. Electricity became available early in the 20th century. 

Though most villas will since have been rewired one or more times since then, many will require rewiring as part of any renovation. Read More.

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Plumbing and drainage

Early villas had running water from a rainwater tank to a sink in the scullery and laundry only. Toilets and laundries were located outside the main building.

As town water supply became available, running water was introduced in kitchens and bathrooms, and toilets and laundries moved inside.

Common problems now include low hot water pressure, leaking drains, and corrosion of original pipes. Read More.

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In early villas, heating was provided by open fires and cooking was done on coal ranges. In many villas, the fireplaces have been removed or blocked up and replaced with gas or electric heating, while kitchens have been renovated – possibly several times – to incorporate running water electric or gas appliances.

See kitchens and fireplaces and chimneys for more.

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Fixtures and fittings

Electrical switches and outlets

Original villas commonly had electrical fittings of ceramic and brass. Read More.

Bathroom fittings

Baths became common from about the 1890s and plumbed-in toilets from about 1910. Read More.